Nevsehir is the provincial capital and mainly used as a transport hub. The main sources of income for Nevsehir used to be carpet weaving and viticulture, however, over the past few years this has rapidly changed, with tourism being the main source of income for the town. Nevsehir is located near many underground cities, the fairy chimneys, monasteries, caravanserais and the famous rock-hewn church of Goreme.
The Nevsehir province is home to around 200 underground cities, each having a minimum of 2 levels, with 40 containing a minimum of 3 levels. The structures are carved out of unique geological formations and were used by Christians as hiding places during times of religious persecution and raids.
There is also an archaeological museum and ethnographical museum with Phrygian, Hittite, Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman artefacts.
Nevsehir was founded by the Hittites on the slopes of Mount Kahveci. It went through various rules, including the Medes in the 8th century BC, the Assyrian Empire, Persian Empire in 546 BC, Alexander the Great in 333 BC, Ariobarzanes and finally the Roman Empire under the rule of Tiberius.
It is thought that the many underground cities here were built to escape persecution by the pagan Roman authorities. Many of the churches built into the rock date back to the 4th century AD, when St Gregory of Nyssa was bishop. Even after Christianity was declared the official religion of the region, the caves were still used as a refuge during Persian invasions.