Erzurum a city found in eastern Turkey, sharing its name with the province it is the largest city in the region and the capital of Erzurum province. Located at 1757 metres above sea level the region offers fantastic views as you travel. Thanks to its height and northern location it has some of the best winter sports facilities and was host to the 2011 Winter Universiade.
Erzurum’s earliest name was ‘Karin’ from the Armenian era. Serving as the capital of the province of Karin as well as sharing the name with the city. After the Armenian kingdom was separated due to the Eastern Roman Empire and the Persians the city fell into Roman control and renamed Theodosiopolis after Emperor Theodosius. Due to its location on the east border of the Roman empire, it saw large amounts of contention making it a location of strategic importance. The city saw many fortifications as each successor took the Emperor's throne.
Conquered by an Umayyad General in 700/701 they used this small area of Arab power to stage raids into the Byzantine territory. While they were surrounded on all side the Arabs here gained help from the Armenian leaders as it kept the land from the Byzantine Emperors. In 931 the Byzantines took the city back from the Arabs forcing them out of the region, however, they worked together with the Armenians to rebuild the city with their help in 1018. Being a stronghold that had the benefit of two culture adding to the build it repelled attacks by the Georgians and Seljuks until 1201 when Sultan Suleymanshah II took the city. It then fell again to Mongol raids in 1242 leading to devastation and mass looting, it became an Ilkhante, and are ruled by Mongol house. The city passed hand from Trebizond Emperor, Turkmen, Safavid Persian until it fell under Ottoman power.
In 1821 the Ottomans were defeated at Erzurum which eventually led to its capture by the Russian empire in 1829, however, in the same year, a treaty forced the Russians to hand the city back. Despite this the Russian Empire made a show of force but did not attack the city due to insufficient people, they instead attacked other less defensible locations forcing the Ottoman empire to hand the city over without resistance but again the Russians were a force to hand the lands back after a treaty was agreed.
This city was here the leader of the modern Republic of Turkey, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, received the first citizenship registration and certificate that is now commonplace across Turkey.